History Samoyed


Ethnic group of nomadic Nenets (formerly Samoyeds) has been ranked among historically extinct nations of Eurasia for quite some time. Very little was known about their origin and culture. There were false information spread concerning their way of life. Only recent archaeological and ethnographic researches provided plausible information about native Asian nations, including the Nenets. Their language belongs to the so-called Finno-Ugric group of languages. It covers the border of Europe and Asia, more specifically the area between the White Sea and the Yenisei. This area of 1,787,000 square kilometers comprises three ethnic regions of Russia. Up to this day Nenets still live off hunting and fishing. Simultaneously, they keep reindeer, but unlike other local nomads, they use them primarily as draft animals, not only for milk and meat. Nenets bred mainly shepherd dogs. They guarded their herds of reindeer, occasionally assisted in hunting and sometimes they were hitched to sleds. Dogs were also used in Nenets homes for guarding their children and keeping them warm. The Nenets are well-known for great respect to their dogs as well as exemplary care for them. This helps to explain the gullibility of dogs and their good relationship with people.

For these qualities, even the very first Samoyeds (sometimes the name of samoyedic Spitz is used), which appeared in the late 19th century, immediately gained their popularity in Central Europe. Samoyeds (not always purebred), had participated in the first expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic. It was claimed that breeds of sled dogs worked for men but Samoyeds worked with men, which was a crucial and most important thing on long dangerous journeys. It is true that Samoyed is not as strong in a sled as for instance the Alaskan Malamute or Eskimo dog, nor as fast as the Siberian husky. However, it is very persistent, hardworking and loyal. It was with this dog that Amundsen reached the South Pole as the first of all.

When this big, ever-smiling white dog came in the late 19th century into Europe, specifically into the UK, in a short time it became very popular. The first breeding was established in the UK and soon the breed standard was developed and announced. Before long, literally madness broke out between dog breeders and dog fans in the United States. This way Samoyed became the first recognize breed of sled dogs in advanced western countries. Samoyed has many characteristic features of a prehistoric dog. Quite interesting is the life story of a Samoyed, which after surviving a dangerous expedition to Antarctica, spent some time in the zoo in Sydney. From there it was imported into the UK, where it lived for five years and left a number of descendants ideal for breeding.

First Samoyed was brought from the United States by Eva Bosáková, our famous gymnast. It was a dog Igor, born September 17, 1967. Throughout his life he was the only representative Samoyed breed in our country.

The first litter of puppies in a monitored, controlled breeding was registered in 1989, in Jamamba breeding station owned by Ms Stanislava Bogdanová. Other litters were registered in breeding stations Alanta, Divoký západ and others. A lot of individuals were imported from Holland, Yugoslavia, Canada, France, Germany, Finland, Italy and many foreign studs were carried out, for instance in Austria, Germany, France.

Samoyed is under the auspice of two clubs in the Czech Republic, Samoyed club and Polar Dogs club (Klub severských psů).

Breed development

Origin of the samoyedic dog breed dates back to the period of thousand years BC, which classifies them among the oldest breeds in general. According to various scientists samoyedic dog has a lot of characteristics of a prehistoric dog. By the discovery of Samoyed Tribes and their Bjelkier dogs in the Great Northern expedition, these dogs have reached the court of the Tsar and his family and as a royal dog was given to European celebrities. Even polar explorers have noticed rare qualities of these dogs and began to use them in their expeditions. The age of polar discoveries lasting since 1870 to 1912 has brought all of the Nordic dogs breeds to the limelight. Mr Nansen was the first one, who used Samoyed dogs during his expeditions and therefore introduced them to the western world. The first dogs were brought to England by Major Frederick g. Jackson. He presented one of them, upon returning from an expedition, to Queen Alexandra. In 1899 he donated another eight dogs to the married couple - the Kilburn-Scotts, who were one of the founders of Samoyed breeding in England. Carsten e. Borchgrevink, a Norwegian living in Australia, who led the English expedition to Antarctica in the years 1899 - 1900, had more than 100 Bjelkiers, but he did not leave any reports of the dogs. Two of them, however, were of an enormous importance for the development of the breed. The most famous Samoyed in history, which he left in a zoo in Sydney – the dog's name was Antarctic Buck and in 1908 he was imported to England. Many contemporary European and world champions are his direct descendants.

Roald Amundsen is considered to be the most successful dog traveler of all times. His method of selection and training of dogs as well as the overall perfect preparation of expeditions are staggering. For his expedition he ordered 97 dogs, which he trained for long weeks and carefully selected from them. Eventually, he used 52 dogs, which pulled four sledges and he set to the South Pole. As he had planned, when he returned he had only one sledge and twelve dogs left. They covered 1860 miles in 99 days. Amundsen's dog sled team was led by a Samoyed dog named Etah. If Amundsen was the first person to set foot on the South Pole, then Etah was the first dog to placed his paw there. It was December 14, 1911. Almost every single present-day Samoyed has its predecessors from polar expeditions.

The name Samoyed derives from the Samoyed Tribes in Northern Russia and Siberia. In southern parts of this area they used white, black and brown multicolored dogs when reindeer grazing; in northern parts the dogs were pure white, of mild nature and were used as hunting and sledge dogs. The Samoyed dogs lived close to their owners, they even slept in their homes and helped to heat up the dwellings. British zoologist Ernest Kilburn Scott spent among Samoyed Tribes three months in 1889. Upon returning to England he brought with him a brown male puppy named "Sabarka". Later he imported a cream colored bitch called "Whitey Pechora" from western Urals and a snow white dog called "Musti" from Siberia. These few dogs and those brought by the explorers were the basis for the western Samoyed breeding. The first standard was written in England in 1909.

Strength, beauty, temperament, pride and nobility are the qualities that radiate from Samoyed. It evokes the impression of a durable, strong, but not sturdy dog. Males must not be groundlessly aggressive. Bitches should have a gentle feminine expression, however, they must not be timid. Samoyed skeleton is solid, corresponding to his height and weight. Neither too subtle nor cumbersome. Samoyed must retain chiefly its elegance. What is desirable is rich and thick hair, some individuals, however, have their coat too cultivated, too long, drooping. The coat should be primarily durable, waterproof. Quality is more important than quantity, and length. Proper Samoyed fur silvery glistens at the ends of the hair when exposed to light.

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Czech republic

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